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「服務他人是你住地球應該付出的租金。」– 穆罕默德‧阿里 (拳擊手)
"Service to others is the rent you pay for your room here on earth." -- Muhammad Ali, Boxer
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天天閱讀英語島,在這裡感知世界,汲取英文的養分。
 
每次讀長篇英文、閱讀測驗,你知道有速解法?只要知道固定的5種常用結構,自然得心應手。

cause and effect 因果結構:說明原因、結果

因果關係的文章主要解決2個重點:1. 事情為什麼會發生(原因)2. 事情的發生結果(效果)。可以透過畫魚骨圖快速還原重點。
魚頭向右:找問題原因;魚頭向左:找方法策略。

閱讀重點:
為什麼會出現這種情況?-->原因
因為這件事,導致了什麼結果?-->結果

常用原因句:

  • _____ result from / be a result of / be a consequence of / be due to _____.  (前者)是由於(後者)導致
  • _____ attributed the failure to _____.  (前者)把失敗歸咎於(後者)

常用結果句:

  • _____ cause / result in / be the reason for / be responsible for / contribute to / lead to _____. (前者)引發、導致(後者)
  • As a result / consequently / therefore / hence / thus / because of this, these areas will no longer be able to support the industry. 因此,這個地區將無法支撐該產業
  • _____ pave the way for _____. (前者)為(後者)鋪路做準備

範例段落:
One of the reasons for the rise of shared workspaces is cost-cutting. The expenses to rent space would be astronomical if every employee were given a private office. Open planning was the initial solution. Then, cubicles enabled even more workers to fit into the same area and the cost of manufacturing soon decreased; therefore, its popularity surged. Hot-desking took it a step further by reducing the amount of desks and space that a company rents because in many companies, not every employee works in the office all the time, a consequence of globalization and the digital revolution. Now, working out of regular business hours and remotely is possible and sometimes necessary.

cause訊號字:
one of the reasons
because
being that
begins with
cause
for this reason
gives rise to
if this happens
in that
in view of the fact
lead to
now that
origin
owing to the fact
reason
seeing that

effect訊號字:
therefore
accordingly
all in all
as a result of
on account of
as a consequence
as a result of
expected
because
because of this
effect
impact
outcome
result
results in
as a result
consequence
consequently
due to
for this reason
finally
happened
hence
in consequence
impact is
namely
since
so
so that

 

problem and solution 解決問題結構:點出問題,找到解方


閱讀重點:
問題在哪?解決的方式是什麼?
這個問題已經持續多久了?問題的嚴重程度為何?
若無法解決會導致什麼問題?
解決這個問題有時間壓力嗎?
有哪些證據可以證明這種方法有效?

常用問題句:

  • A reason for the problem is _____. 造成這問題的其一原因是…
  • This is a problem because _____. 這是一個難題,因為…
  • Factors impacting this problem include _____. 影響這個問題的因素包含…

常用答案句:

  • One of the solutions is _____. 其一解方是…
  • This can be solved by _____. 這可以透過…解決
  • One way to resolve this is _____. 一種改善的方式是…

範例文章:
Financially, accommodating a greater number of employees in the same space as a private office makes sense; however, a number of problems have arisen. The level of noise and distractions, from office chatter, phone calls, and colleagues walking by, for example, no doubt increases. This brings into question the effects on productivity and therefore the profitability of a company, both of which are difficult to measure. These days, employees in managerial positions are not guaranteed private offices. Not only do team meetings need to be conducted in open offices which contribute to noise, but discussions involving sensitive information could also be awkward to have.

problem訊號字:
problem
conundrum
dilemma
factor
issue
problem
problematic
puzzle
quandary
question
reason
situation

solution訊號字:
question
possibility
proposition
solution
remedy
resolution

 

 內容選自《一張圖搞懂2018.6月號》訂閱雜誌

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