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列出新年新希望不難,難的是保持動力、直到達成目標。心理學教授說,大腦中有一個"go system",驅策你朝目標邁進,透過5個步驟調整你的習慣,go system的效率就會大幅提升。

進入本文前請想一想,這些單字英文怎麼說: (A)具體 (B) 沉溺 (C) 分心

The bigger your goal is, the more you might need to adjust your habits. Art Markman, professor of psychology and marketing at the University of Texas at Austin, called the motivational centers of the brain "go systems." It takes your goals and drives you to act, but it uses your habits as shortcuts to finishing tasks. Markman suggested making things happen with five steps.

目標越遠大,就越需要調整你的習慣。德州大學奧斯汀分校心理學及行銷學教授亞特馬克曼,把大腦內負責動機的部分稱作「行動系統」,此系統掌管你的目標、驅使你行動。良好習慣則是系統運作的捷徑,因此馬克曼建議採取5步驟來實現目標:

1. Think about the process and frame the goal the right way
注重過程,設定正確目標

To achieve an abstract goal, you need to frame it with positive actions instead of the negative ones. If your goal is to lose weight, thinking "I shouldn't eat too much" is (1) bound to fail. Instead, changing what you do eat brings better results. Meanwhile, view your goal as an ongoing process, instead of a one-time thing, since the actions you take to achieve your goal are ongoing ones.

要達成抽象的目標,必須為目標設定正面行動而非負 面。如果目標是減重,想著「我不該吃太多」注定會失 敗,改變飲食清單才會有較佳成果。同時,請把目標看 作一段進行中的過程,而不是僅此一次的終點,畢竟為 達成目標所採取的行動必須是進行式。

2. Put it in your calendar and be (A) specific
寫在行事曆上,而且要具體

Putting actions in your calendar as a reminder. It also helps you figure out what is standing in the way. Be specific about the time you are going to take the actions. "There's no 'twice a week' on your calendar–there's Mondays and Wednesdays from 4-5 p.m.," says Markman.

在日曆上標註行動做為提醒。這麼做也幫助看清是哪些事阻礙擬採取行動。規劃行動時程要具體,「沒有『一周兩次』這種規劃法—請規劃如『每周一、三下午四到五點。』」馬克曼這麼說。

3. Figure out how you really spend your time and (2) factor in bad habits
搞清楚自己怎麼使用時間,一併考慮壞習慣

"Fake work" such as checking email can be one of your biggest obstacles. Try keeping track of how you spend your time for 14 days, so you realize when your habits are getting in the way. You may find yourself doing your best work in the morning, but you often lose mornings to checking emails or other trifles. Still, it's not easy to just break the habit of checking emails. The alternative is to let yourself (B) indulge it, but just for a short time. "Set a timer for 10 minutes and only check your email for that amount of time. Then set your timer for 60 minutes and work on your big project. You will have gotten the (C) distraction of your habit out of the way and accomplished an hour of deep work," says Fast Company.

For those who don't have the motivation to start the 60 minutes of a big project, just tell yourself to do it for 10 minutes and then you can stop. "Chances are" he says, "that after 10 minutes the flow and enjoyment of the activity takes over, and you'll just keep going."

一直檢查email這樣的「假工作」很可能是實現目標的一大障礙。試著紀錄自己使用時間的方式連續14天,以了解何時你的習慣對行動不利。你可能會發現自己上午的時間表現最佳,但也常因為檢查email或做其他瑣事而損失整個上午的時間。不過,打破檢查email的習慣並不容易,較好的調整方式是放縱自己去檢查email(或做其他瑣事),但只花短短的時間。「計時10分鐘,只花這些時間收email。接著設定60分鐘進行重大計畫。這麼做排除了令人分心的習慣,又可完成一小時的深度工作。」Fast Company報導。

4. Enlist other people
徵召他人

In an article of Markman's, he also mentioned that "When you are the only one responsible for an action, though, you don't have other people to discuss your plans with. You also don't have social support for carrying out an action."

馬克曼在另一篇文章中也提到,「只有自己對行動負責,你就沒有其他人可討論計畫,也沒有他人可支持你實踐行動。」

5. Structure your environment to help you reach your goals
打造有助達成目標的環境

Your home or work space should be set up to make what you want to accomplish easy, and what you don't want to accomplish hard. For example, if your goal is to start running, at least put your running shoes by the door.

家中或工作環境的佈置應該讓想做的事更容易,不該做的事更困難。例如,目標是開始跑步,至少把跑鞋擺在門邊吧。

 

單字:

(1) be bound to 必定
We are bound to hear from them soon. 我們一定會收到他們的消息。

(2) factor in 把…考慮在內
The supervisor factored in overtime when giving out bonuses. 主管發獎金時,將加班狀況考慮在內。

 

本文收錄於英語島English Island 2018年3月號
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