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有了汽車,不丹不那麼快樂了

Car boom brings gridlock misery to 'green and happy' Bhutan - Environment

想到不丹,很多人腦中浮現喜馬拉雅山被雲霧纏繞、五彩經幡飄揚的風景。不丹是個重視環保、慢活的國家,也是全世界唯一一個將「國民幸福總值」放到GDP之前衡量的國家。當人們心中的人間淨土擋不住現代化,引進更多汽車,會發生什麼改變?

 

Famed for valuing Gross National Happiness over economic growth, Bhutan is a poster child for sustainable development. But booming car sales may impact efforts to preserve its rare status as a carbon negative country -- and an increase in traffic is testing the good humor of its citizens.

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The nation's economy has grown 7.5 percent each year in the past decade, according to the World Bank. Officials estimate there is now one car for every seven people in Bhutan, which has a total population of 750,000.

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But the nation's narrow country lanes and outdated city roads can barely cope. A lack of infrastructure, along with poor driving etiquette -- some simply leave their cars parked in the middle of the road -- compounds the problem.

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The proliferation of the internet and smartphones are fueling modern desires, while dealers are filling their showrooms with new brands and models from Japan and South Korea to lure buyers.

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Environmental activist Yeshey Dorji explains: "As a nation that prides itself on being a carbon-negative country, the increase in the number of fossil fuel vehicles speaks poorly of our leadership position in environmental conservation."

閱讀全文:The Jakarta Post
閱讀時間:4min 

關鍵單字

Gross National Happiness

國民幸福總值,簡稱GNH,不丹國王Jigme Singye Wangchuck創造的治理方針。在不丹,從經濟發展到文化、環境保護,都要以國民幸福為目標制定,在官方2015年的調查中顯示,有91.2%不丹人感到幸福。

不過在2019年「World Happpiness Report」中,不丹在156個家家中排名95,官方解釋這是因為該報告調查標準包括物質享受。

poster child

直譯「海報兒童」,最初用來指慈善募款海報的兒童,有模範、典型代表的意思。在這段新聞中,說到不丹是「永續發展」的模範代表。根據環境資訊中心整理,不丹推廣「綠色公共採購」,使用「METT+」,一種管理效能的追蹤工具管理國家公園,以及建立不丹ABS基金,讓所有國民共享國家資源...等一系列實踐永續國家的政策。

carbon-negative country

負碳排。不丹憲法規定,國家的土地至少60%必須是森林,目前不丹的森林覆蓋率超過70%,擁有多樣的野生環境、生物。因此不丹又稱「負碳排」國家,大片森林吸收的碳污染,比整國發出的碳排量多了四倍。


編輯/ 英語島編輯室

本文收錄於英語島English Island 2019年9月號
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